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Nilsson J, Hörnberg M, Schmidt-Christensen A, Linde K, Nilsson M, Carlus M, Erttmann SF, Mayans S, Holmberg D. NKT cells promote both type 1 and type 2 inflammatory responses in a mouse model of liver fibrosis.

Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 11;10(1):21778



Sterile liver inflammation and fibrosis are associated with many liver disorders of different etiologies. Both type 1 and type 2 inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute to liver pathology. However, the mechanisms controlling the balance between these responses are largely unknown. Natural killer T (NKT) cells can be activated to rapidly secrete cytokines and chemokines associated with both type 1 and type 2 inflammatory responses. As these proteins have been reported to accumulate in different types of sterile liver inflammation, we hypothesized that these cells may play a role in this pathological process. We have found that a transgenic NKT (tgNKT) cell population produced in the immunodeficient 2,4αβNOD.Rag2-/- mice, but not in 2,4αβNOD.Rag2+/-control mice, promoted a type 1 inflammatory response with engagement of the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The induction of the type 1 inflammatory response was followed by an altered cytokine profile of the tgNKT cell population with a biased production of anti-inflammatory/profibrotic cytokines and development of liver fibrosis. These findings illustrate how the plasticity of NKT cells modulates the inflammatory response, suggesting a key role for the NKT cell population in the control of sterile liver inflammation.

Cavana P, Bensignor E, Blot S, Carlus M, Chermette R, Crosaz O, Grimm F, Hurion M, Jeandel A, Polack B.

Vet Dermatol. 2015 Aug;26(4):293-e65. doi: 10.1111/vde.12215. Epub 2015 May 12.



Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that primarily infects Canidae. The adult parasites are found in the pulmonary arterial circulation and the right side of the heart. The most common clinical sign is respiratory dysfunction. Bleeding, neurological, ocular, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders are also reported. Skin lesions are very unusual.


This report describes a nematode dermatitis due to A. vasorum infection. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a dog infected with this parasite that initially presented with skin lesions only.


A 3-year-old female Weimaraner dog presented with a crusted papular dermatitis on the bridge of the nose and on the pinnae, and an erythematous pododermatitis with erosions and perionyxis of one digit of 1 week's duration. Two weeks later the dog developed respiratory distress.


Skin scrapings and fungal culture were negative for parasites and dermatophytes. Histopathological examination showed dermal granulomas and pyogranulomas with eosinophils centred around parasitic elements compatible with nematode larvae. Angiostrongylus vasorum DNA was demonstrated in skin biopsies. Chest radiographs were compatible with verminous pneumonia and a Baermann test revealed A. vasorum larvae. The dog was treated orally with fenbendazole, with rapid improvement and complete cure after 3 months.


Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in dogs presented with skin lesions and respiratory signs. Skin biopsy, chest radiographs and Baermann test should be included in the diagnostic investigation.

© 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

Cavana P, Hubert B, Cordonnier N, Carlus M, Favrot C, Bensignor E.

Vet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;26(3):209-10. doi: 10.1111/vde.12200. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Bourguet A, Piccicuto V, Donzel E, Carlus M, Chahory S.

Vet Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul;18(4):345-9. doi: 10.1111/vop.12233. Epub 2014 Nov 16.


This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histological lesions, and prognosis of a primary choroidal malignant melanoma in a 15-year-old cat. The animal was presented for unilateral blindness. On ocular examination, a raised pigmented mass protruding from the posterior pole into the vitreous body was observed by diffuse transillumination and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Ocular ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan confirmed localization of the tumor to the posterior segment. The diagnosis of primary choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathology after enucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline malignant melanoma with a primary choroidal localization without iris involvement.


cat; choroid; eye; melanoma; ocular tumor; retinal detachment

Mir F, Fontaine E, Reyes-Gomez E, Carlus M, Fontbonne A.

J Small Anim Pract. 2012 Jul;53(7):419-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01224.x. Epub 2012 Jun 12.


A stud dog was presented for acquired infertility. Haematospermia and teratozoospermia were found on two ejaculates 2 weeks apart. A presumptive diagnosis of prostatitis was made follo-wing ultrasound examination. An ultrasound-guided needle core biopsy was performed under general anaesthesia, revealing a mild chronic macrophagic and plasma cell prostatitis with intracytoplasmic amastigotes consistent with Leishmania spp. infection. Presence of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania donovani or Leishmania chagasi was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in seminal plasma. Serology and serum protein electrophoresis confirmed the diagnosis of a subclinical active systemic leishmaniasis. A meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol treatment was given which clearly improved within 3 months both general condition and the quality of sperm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a prostatitis secondary to a Leishmania spp. infection. Subclinical systemic leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infertility in dogs suffering from semen alterations.

Carlus M, Elies L, Fouque MC, Maliver P, Schorsch F.

Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013 Mar;65(3):243-53. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2011.08.013. Epub 2011 Sep 25.


Incidences of neoplastic lesions were evaluated in untreated Hannover Wistar Rats RjHan: WI (470 males and 470 females) used as control animals in eight carcinogenicity studies. All these studies were performed in a similar environment either for the in vivo and the postmortem evaluation. The major neoplastic lesions were found in the endocrine, integumentary and reproductive systems. Pituitary adenoma was the most frequent neoplasm and occurred in 33.9% of the males and 54.6% of the female rats. The other most frequent tumors in males were thyroid C-cell adenoma (8.6%), pancreatic islet cell adenoma (8.1%), subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (6.6%), subcutaneous fibroma (4.7%), benign pheochromocytoma (3.4%), and cutaneous keratoacanthoma (3.4%). In females, the other highest incidences were mammary fibroadenoma (29%), uterine endometrial stromal polyp (18.1%), mammary adenocarcinoma (14.2%), mammary fibroadenoma with atypia (13.7%), thyroid C-cell adenoma (7.5%), benign thymoma (3.7%), and subcutaneous fibrosarcoma (3.6%). All these data were compared to previously published historical control data. This retrospective analysis was undergone in order to illustrate the result of a stable organization which guarantees a robust historical data base for neoplastic and non neoplastic findings.

Rouger K, Larcher T, Dubreil L, Deschamps JY, Le Guiner C, Jouvion G, Delorme B, Lieubeau B, Carlus M, Fornasari B, Theret M, Orlando P, Ledevin M, Zuber C, Leroux I, Deleau S, Guigand L, Testault I, Le Rumeur E, Fiszman M, Chérel Y.

Am J Pathol. 2011 Nov;179(5):2501-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.07.022. Epub 2011 Sep 13.


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic progressive muscle disease resulting from the lack of dystrophin and without effective treatment. Adult stem cell populations have given new impetus to cell-based therapy of neuromuscular diseases. One of them, muscle-derived stem cells, isolated based on delayed adhesion properties, contributes to injured muscle repair. However, these data were collected in dystrophic mice that exhibit a relatively mild tissue phenotype and clinical features of DMD patients. Here, we characterized canine delayed adherent stem cells and investigated the efficacy of their systemic delivery in the clinically relevant DMD animal model to assess potential therapeutic application in humans. Delayed adherent stem cells, named MuStem cells (muscle stem cells), were isolated from healthy dog muscle using a preplating technique. In vitro, MuStem cells displayed a large expansion capacity, an ability to proliferate in suspension, and a multilineage differentiation potential. Phenotypically, they corresponded to early myogenic progenitors and uncommitted cells. When injected in immunosuppressed dystrophic dogs, they contributed to myofiber regeneration, satellite cell replenishment, and dystrophin expression. Importantly, their systemic delivery resulted in long-term dystrophin expression, muscle damage course limitation with an increased regeneration activity and an interstitial expansion restriction, and persisting stabilization of the dog's clinical status. These results demonstrate that MuStem cells could provide an attractive therapeutic avenue for DMD patients.

Cell therapy of duchenne muscular dystrophy: Preclinical trial in GRMD dogs

Rouger K, Larcher T, Dubreil L, Deschamps JY, Le Guiner C, Jouvion G, Delorme B, Lieubeau B, Carlus M, , Chérel Y.

July 2011 Bulletin de l'Académie vétérinaire de France 164(3):211-216


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic progressive X-linked muscular dystrophy, is the most common genetic disease in humans. Cell therapy based on the use of somatic stem cells is a very promising approach. In a dog myopathy model, we isolated a muscle stem cell (MuStem) with the essential requirements for therapeutic use: high amplification capacity, ability to fuse with muscle fibers, renewal of the satellite cell population, dispersion in the whole body after vascular administration, persistence of long-term effect, and dramatic clinical improvement of treated animals. These preclinical results pave the way for a therapeutic trial in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

A Case of Scrotal Leiomyosarcoma in a Dog

Laloy E, Chateau-Joubert S, Rakotovao F, Carlus M, Servely JL, El Mrini M, Alleaume C, Cordonnier N

Journal of Comparative Pathology. 2013 Jan;148(1):67

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